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  • Writer's pictureDarrell Stetler II

The 12 Disciple Names: Who Were They and What Did They Do?

Updated: Apr 30

The 12 disciples of Jesus were a group of men who played a significant role in spreading the teachings of Christianity. Each disciple had their own unique personality and background, and they were known for their unwavering faith and dedication to their beliefs. In this article, we'll explore the names and nicknames of the 12 disciples, as well as their individual contributions to the early Christian movement.

Introduction to the 12 Disciples

A Disciple means a "learner." When we speak of the 12 disciples of Jesus, what is usually meant is the core group of Jesus disciples that were the leaders of those who followed after Jesus.

The 12 disciples of Jesus (sometimes also called Apostles) were a diverse group of men who were chosen by Jesus to be his closest followers and to spread his teachings throughout the world. They were fishermen, tax collectors, and ordinary men who were transformed by their experiences with Jesus. Despite facing persecution and even death, they remained steadfast in their faith and played a crucial role in the establishment of Christianity. Let's take a closer look at who these men were and what they accomplished.

Simon Peter: The Rock.

Simon Peter was one of the most prominent of the 12 disciples and was known for his strong faith and leadership. He was a fisherman by trade and was originally named Simon, but Jesus gave him the nickname "Peter," which means "rock." In each of the times the 12 disciples' names are given, Peter's is listed first, signifying his role as "first among equals." Peter was often the spokesperson for the group and was present at many of the most significant events in Jesus' life, including the Transfiguration and the Last Supper. After Jesus' death, Peter became a leader in the early Christian church and was instrumental in spreading the message of Jesus to the world.

Andrew: The First Called.

Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter and was the first disciple called by Jesus. He was a fisherman by trade and was known for his strong faith and willingness to follow Jesus. Andrew is often depicted as the patron saint of Scotland and is remembered for his missionary work in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. He is also known for bringing the boy with the loaves and fishes to Jesus, which led to the feeding of the 5,000.

James and John: The Sons of Thunder.

James and John were brothers and were known as the Sons of Thunder. They were fishermen by trade and were called by Jesus to be his disciples along with their father, Zebedee. James and John were known for their fiery personalities and were once rebuked by Jesus for wanting to call down fire from heaven on a Samaritan village that rejected them. James was the first of the disciples to be martyred, and John went on to become a prominent leader in the early Christian church and wrote several books of the New Testament.

Philip: The Analyzer.

Philip was one of the 12 disciples of Jesus and is often referred to as the skeptic. He was from Bethsaida and was called by Jesus to follow him. Philip was known for his analytical and questioning nature, often asking Jesus for clarification on his teachings. In the gospel of John, Philip is portrayed as a practical and down-to-earth disciple. For example, when Jesus asked him where they could buy enough bread to feed a large crowd, (Matthew 14:13-21, Mark 6:31-44, Luke 9:12-17, and John 6:1-14) Philip responded that it would take more than six months' wages to buy enough bread for everyone. Despite his initial skepticism, Philip became a faithful follower of Jesus and went on to spread his teaching. After Jesus' death and resurrection, Philip is said to have preached the gospel in Greece and Phrygia, where he was reportedly martyred by crucifixion.

Matthew: The Tax Collector

Matthew, also known as Levi, was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus and is best known for his role as a tax collector before becoming a follower of Jesus. According to the Gospel accounts, Matthew was sitting at his tax collector's booth when Jesus approached him and invited him to follow him. Matthew immediately left his job and became a disciple of Jesus. (See Matthew 9:9-13, Luke 5:27-28) As a tax collector, Matthew would have been seen as an outcast by his fellow Jews, who viewed tax collectors as collaborators with the Roman occupiers and traitors to their people. However, after becoming a disciple of Jesus, Matthew became an important figure in the early Christian community and is credited with writing the Gospel of Matthew, one of the four canonical gospels of the New Testament.

According to tradition, Matthew preached the gospel in Judea and Ethiopia before his death, though the details of his life and ministry are largely unknown.

Thomas: The Skeptic

Thomas, also known as Didymus or "the twin," was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. He is perhaps best known for his initial skepticism regarding Jesus' resurrection, which led to his famous nickname, "Doubting Thomas." According to John 20:24-29, Thomas was not present when Jesus first appeared to the disciples after his resurrection. When the other disciples told him that they had seen the risen Lord, Thomas famously declared that he would not believe it unless he could see and touch the wounds in Jesus' hands and side. A week later, Jesus appeared to Thomas and invited him to touch his wounds, leading Thomas to proclaim, "My Lord and my God!"

Apart from this episode, not much is known about Thomas' life or ministry. According to tradition, he traveled to India to preach the gospel and was martyred there, though the details of his death are unclear.

Thaddeus: The Unknown

Thaddaeus, also known as Jude or Judas (not Iscariot), was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. He is mentioned in the lists of disciples in the gospels of Matthew and Mark, but apart from that, not much is known about his life or ministry. It is good to remember that Jesus doesn't just value the loud, out-front personality, but values the contributions of those who are quieter and operate behind-the-scenes.

According to tradition, he preached the gospel in Syria and Persia, and was martyred there.

James, Son of Alpheus: The Just One

James, son of Alpheus, was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. He is often referred to as James the Less or James the Just to distinguish him from James, the son of Zebedee (brother of John). His name of "Just" is due to his reputation for being a highly righteous and pious man. According to early Christian writings, James was known for his devotion to God and his strict observance of Jewish laws and traditions. He was also highly respected among early Christian communities for his leadership and wisdom.

After Jesus' death and resurrection, James is said to have traveled to Egypt and Ethiopia to preach the gospel. According to tradition, he was martyred in Egypt by stoning, though the details of his death are unclear.

Simon: The Zealot

Simon the Zealot was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, and his name suggests that he was a member of the Zealot movement, a political faction that advocated for Jewish independence from Roman rule.

Simon's inclusion among the twelve disciples reflects Jesus' radical message of inclusivity and his willingness to embrace individuals from diverse backgrounds and political viewpoints. Despite their differences, Simon and the other disciples were united in their shared commitment to following Jesus and spreading his message of love and compassion.

Not much is known about Simon's life or ministry, but he is believed to have been a fervent and passionate disciple of Jesus. According to tradition, he traveled to Egypt and Persia to preach the gospel after Jesus' Resurrection, and was martyred in either Persia or Samaria.

Judas: the Betrayer

Judas Iscariot was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus and is infamous for betraying him for thirty pieces of silver. According to the Gospel accounts, Judas arranged for Jesus to be arrested and identified him to the authorities by kissing him on the cheek in the darkness of the Garden of Gethsemane. It is valuable to remember that proximity to Jesus, or talent, does not make someone a true follower, a true imitator of his ways, and truly obedient to him.

The motive for Judas' betrayal is not entirely clear. Some speculate that he was disillusioned with Jesus' teachings, while others suggest that he may have been motivated by greed or a desire for political power. He was the treasurer of the group of disciples, and would occasionally embezzle money for his own purposes. (See John 12:6)

After Jesus' arrest and trial, Judas reportedly regretted his actions and returned the money to the authorities, but it was too late to stop Jesus' crucifixion. He died by committing suicide. One of the Gospels reports him hanging himself, while another reports him "falling and bursting open." This is often harmonized by suggesting he hung himself over the side of a cliff or gully, falling after his hanging. (compare Matthew 27:5–8, Acts 1:18-19)

Can I be a disciple?

The 12 disciple names listed here are not the only ones! A disciple is someone who follows and learns from Jesus in order to obey his commands, develop his character, and imitate his life.

The common thread of all disciples is not their ability, or talent, or background. The 12 disciple names here were not bound together by their similarities, but their differences.

Then, Jesus commanded these men to "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” (Matthew 28:19-20)

This means that the door of discipleship has been thrown open to you, and all who are willing to believe in Jesus enough to follow after him.

A disciple isn't just one of the 12 followers of Jesus, it isn't just the 12 disciple names here... it can be YOUR name as well.

How can I be a disciple?

If you're interested in following Jesus, you'll need to invest in learning his ways, obeying his commands, developing his character, and imitating his life.

I'd recommend learning how to start by learning the highlights of the Bible, the word of God, and developing spiritual disciplines of prayer, community, and the Word like jesus taught his disciples.

If you want a specific starter point, try the NewStart Discipleship Journal, or the Obedience Challenge.

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